Locke argued that our “lives, liberties and estates” are our property because we own our bodies and mix our labour with our surroundings. Hegel believed that civil society and the state were polar opposites, within the scheme of his dialectic theory of history. The modern dipole state–civil society was reproduced in the theories of Alexis de Tocqueville and Karl Marx.
- Professor Marshfield teaches and writes in the areas of local government law, state constitutional law, and constitutional change.
- The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg allows citizens of the Council of Europe member states to bring cases relating to human rights issues before it.
- Modern civil law systems essentially derive from legal codes issued by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century, which were rediscovered by 11th century Italy.
- The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies